Fort Worth United Soccer Club graphics and logo files

Below are the graphics and logo files we used at Fort Worth United Soccer Club for the creation of brochures, T-Shirts, club banners, tournament materials, etc.  I also included some DFW United files (our long-term plan was to expand the club beyond Fort Worth under the DFW United name).

Logos are in various sizes and rotations.  Sorry I did not have the time to organize them better.  Click here for more information about FWU.

Photoshop graphic files

Below are links to Photoshop .psd files (high-quality originals used to generate the graphic files in the gallery below).  Click the link to download the file.

FWU Badge Medium Large

Ad copy bottom

Ad copy bottom – small

Web site header wo border

Web site header wo border – curved bottom

Web site header wo border – curved bottom – small

Resource Connection Field Layout


FWU Spirit Gear Header

FWU Logo Medium

FWU Logo Medium Large

FWU Logo Medium Large Watermark

FWU Logo Medium Large Watermark Rotated

FWU Badge Medium

Misc graphics gallery

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Fix: Attempting to execute a PowerShell script throws “the file is not digitally signed” error

How to fix PowerShell “file is not digitally signed” error

Attempting to execute a PowerShell script copied from a different machine throws “the file is not digitally signed. You cannot run this script on the current system.”

Screenshot - PowerShell - the file is not digitally signed.  You cannot run this script on the current system

Fix 1 – change the execution policy

The fix is to use Set-ExecutionPolicy to set the ExecutionPolicy to suppress all messages and allow execution of copied scripts for this session only.  Of course this requires Administrator privileges.

Set-ExecutionPolicy -Scope Process -ExecutionPolicy Bypass

PowerShell supports a concept called “execution policies” in order to provide a more secure command line administration experience.  Execution policies define the restrictions under which PowerShell loads files for execution and configuration.  By default, the mode is set to Restricted which prohibits PowerShell from loading configuration files or running scripts.

The Scope parameter specifies the scope of the execution policy.  Possible values are:

  • Process: The execution policy affects only the current Windows PowerShell process.
  • CurrentUser: The execution policy affects only the current user.
  • LocalMachine: The execution policy affects all users of the computer.

Possible values for the -ExecutionPolicy parameter:

  • Restricted: The default setting which does not load configuration files or run scripts.
  • AllSigned: Requires that all scripts and configuration files be signed by a trusted publisher, including scripts that you write on the local computer.
  • RemoteSigned: Requires that all scripts and configuration files downloaded from the Internet be signed by a trusted remote publisher.
  • Unrestricted: Loads all configuration files and runs all scripts. If you run an unsigned script that was downloaded from the Internet, you are prompted for permission before it runs.
  • Bypass: Nothing is blocked and there are no warnings or prompts.
  • Undefined: Removes the currently assigned execution policy from the current scope, returning the session to the default.  This parameter will not remove an execution policy that is set in a Active Directory Group Policy.

Fix 2 – sign the PowerShell script with a self-signed certificate

For production environments, AllSigned is best which means you’ll need to add a digital signature to the script.  You can create and use a self-signed certificate (use makecert.exe to create the certificate) which will then need to be installed on the machine you copy the script to.

Begin by opening MMC and adding the Certificates Snap-in (add the Snap-in for your account only).

Next, start an Administrator command line.  Run makecert (part of the Windows SDK and Visual Studio toolkits) from the command line using the following options.  You won’t be able to create the root.pvk private key file in the directory unless you run the command line ad Administrator (nor will makecert be able to add the cert to the store).

makecert -n “CN=PowerShell Local Root Certificate” -a sha1 -eku -r -sv root.pvk root.cer -ss Root -sr localMachine

The options specified in the makecert command are:

-n The certificate name.  It must conform to the X.500 standard so “CN=” is required.

-a The signature algorithm. sha1 is the default but you may also specify md5, sha256, sha384, or sha512.

-eku inserts a OID (enhanced key usage object identifier) into the certificate.  An OID is a dotted decimal string that uniquely identifies an object class or attribute.

-r Creates a self-signed cert

-sv the .pvk private key file (it is created if it does not exist)

-ss The certificate store name that will store the output certificate.

-sr The certificate store location (can be “currentuser” or “localmachine”).

You will be prompted to create a private key password.  Make up a password and remember it.

makecert.exe - enter private key password



Next you will be prompted to re-enter the private key password from above.

makecert.exe - re-enter private key password


You should receive a “Succeeded” response. If you receive an error stating that the cert could not be added to the key store, it is likely that you did not start the Command prompt as an Administrator user.

Go back to MMC and check under Certificates –> Trusted Root Certification Authorities –> Certificates.  You should see the new PowerShell Local Root Certificate.

PowerShell Local Root Certificate in the Trusted Root Certification Authorities (for code signing)


Next we need to create a certificate in the Personal store.  From the Command line, run makecert using the following parameters:

makecert -pe -n “CN=PowerShell User” -ss MY -a sha1 -eku -iv root.pvk -ic root.cer

The options provided in this instance are:

-pe Marks the private key as exportable so it can be included in the certificate.

-n The certificate name.  It must conform to the X.500 standard so “CN=” is required.

-ss The certificate store name that will store the output certificate.

-a The signature algorithm. sha1 is the default but you may also specify md5, sha256, sha384, or sha512.

-eku inserts a OID (enhanced key usage object identifier) into the certificate.  An OID is a dotted decimal string that uniquely identifies an object class or attribute.

-iv Specified the .pvk private key file

-ic Specifies the issuer’s certificate file

You will be prompted for the private key password again (created above).

makecert.exe - re-enter private key password


You should receive a “Succeeded” response.

Go back to MMC and ensure the PowerShell User certificate was created in the Personal store (you may have to right-click and choose Refresh).

PowerShell User certificate in the Personal store


From a PowerShell console, you can issue the following command to see the certificate (certificate information is stored in C:\Documents and Settings\[username]\Application Data\Microsoft\SystemCertificates\My\).

Get-ChildItem cert:\CurrentUser\My -codesign

Here’s a screenshot of the result.

Result of Get-ChildItem cert:\CurrentUser\My -codesign command in PowerShell console


Since the certificate information is stored in C:\Documents and Settings\[username]\Application Data\Microsoft\SystemCertificates\My\, you can delete the root.pvk and root.cer files that were created from makecert.

Sign and test the newly signed PowerShell script

Begin by making sure the PowerShell execution policy requires all scripts be signed.  From a PowerShell command line (must be run as Administrator in order to change the system execution policy), run the following to set the execution policy to AllSigned.

Set-ExecutionPolicy AllSigned

Respond to the warning about changing the execution policy.

Attempt to run your unsigned script.  You should receive an error stating the script was not digitally signed and the script will not run.

File C:\PATH\FILENAME.ps1 cannot be loaded. The file

C:\PATH\FILENAME.ps1 is not digitally signed. You cannot run this script on

the current system. For more information about running scripts and setting execution policy, see

about_Execution_Policies at

+ CategoryInfo          : SecurityError: (:) [], ParentContainsErrorRecordException

+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : UnauthorizedAccess

Next, from the PowerShell command line, sign the script using the following command.

Set-AuthenticodeSignature “C:\PATH\FILENAME.ps1” @(Get-ChildItem cert:\CurrentUser\My -codesign)[0]

PowerShell will respond with details about the certificate.

Directory: C:\PATH

SignerCertificate                         Status                               Path
—————–                         ——                               —-
CD1C8A995487758C0752437BDAA97A383E1A27B5  Valid                                Capture machine status.ps1

The command will modify the script and append the signature block to the end of the script.  If the script is already loaded in PowerShell, reload the script and examine the last lines of the file.  It will look simliar to this:

# SIG # Begin signature block






# Dxoj+2keS9sRR6XPl/ASs68LeF8o9cM=

# SIG # End signature block

Attempt to run the script again.  You will be prompted whether to run once, run always, or not run.  If you select Always run, you will not be prompted again for this script (on this machine).

Powershell prompting whether or not to run the signed PowerShell script



Note that any changes made to the file after it was signed will require that you re-sign the file.

File C:\PATH\FILE.ps1 cannot be loaded. The contents of file
C:\PATH\FILE.ps1 might have been changed by an unauthorized user or
process, because the hash of the file does not match the hash stored in the digital signature. The script cannot
run on the specified system. For more information, run Get-Help about_Signing..
+ CategoryInfo : SecurityError: (:) [], ParentContainsErrorRecordException
+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : UnauthorizedAccess


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Create new directories and subdirectories in Unix using a single terminal command

It’s funny how programmers get in a "rut", using the same old coding habits and command line syntax for years on end.  I just found that you can create new directories and subdirectories with a single Unix mkdir command using the -p parm.

mkdir -p top_level_directory/child_directory/another_child_directory

And if you’re curious, this won’t work (I tried it):

mkdir -p onemoredir/../anotherdir

Goes to show you that we should follow the same advice we give the junior developers – "check the man page".

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20 Linux system monitoring tools to assist SysAdmins when herding cats

Need to monitor Linux server performance? Try these built-in commands and a few add-on tools. Most Linux distributions are equipped with tons of monitoring. These tools provide metrics which can be used to get information about system activities. You can use these tools to find the possible causes of a performance problem. The commands discussed below are some of the most basic commands when it comes to system analysis and debugging server issues such as:

  1. Finding out bottlenecks.
  2. Disk (storage) bottlenecks.
  3. CPU and memory bottlenecks.
  4. Network bottlenecks.

#1: top – Process Activity Command

The top program provides a dynamic real-time view of a running system i.e. actual process activity. By default, it displays the most CPU-intensive tasks running on the server and updates the list every five seconds.


Fig.01: Linux top command

Commonly Used Hot Keys

The top command provides several useful hot keys:

Hot Key

Displays summary information off and on.

Displays memory information off and on.

Sorts the display by top consumers of various system resources. Useful for quick identification of performance-hungry tasks on a system.

Enters an interactive configuration screen for top. Helpful for setting up top for a specific task.

Enables you to interactively select the ordering within top.

Issues renice command.

Issues kill command.

Turn on or off color/mono

#2: vmstat – System Activity, Hardware and System Information

The command vmstat reports information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, and cpu activity.
# vmstat 3
Sample Outputs:

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------
 r  b   swpd   free   buff  cache   si   so    bi    bo   in   cs us sy id wa st
 0  0      0 2540988 522188 5130400    0    0     2    32    4    2  4  1 96  0  0
 1  0      0 2540988 522188 5130400    0    0     0   720 1199  665  1  0 99  0  0
 0  0      0 2540956 522188 5130400    0    0     0     0 1151 1569  4  1 95  0  0
 0  0      0 2540956 522188 5130500    0    0     0     6 1117  439  1  0 99  0  0
 0  0      0 2540940 522188 5130512    0    0     0   536 1189  932  1  0 98  0  0
 0  0      0 2538444 522188 5130588    0    0     0     0 1187 1417  4  1 96  0  0
 0  0      0 2490060 522188 5130640    0    0     0    18 1253 1123  5  1 94  0  0
Display Memory Utilization Slabinfo

# vmstat -m

Get Information About Active / Inactive Memory Pages

# vmstat -a

#3: w – Find Out Who Is Logged on And What They Are Doing

w command displays information about the users currently on the machine, and their processes.

# w username

# w vivek

Sample Outputs:

 17:58:47 up 5 days, 20:28,  2 users,  load average: 0.36, 0.26, 0.24
USER     TTY      FROM              LOGIN@   IDLE   JCPU   PCPU WHAT
root     pts/0       14:55    5.00s  0.04s  0.02s vim /etc/resolv.conf
root     pts/1       17:43    0.00s  0.03s  0.00s w

#4: uptime – Tell How Long The System Has Been Running

The uptime command can be used to see how long the server has been running. The current time, how long the system has been running, how many users are currently logged on, and the system load averages for the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes.

# uptime


 18:02:41 up 41 days, 23:42,  1 user,  load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00

1 can be considered as optimal load value. The load can change from system to system. For a single CPU system 1 – 3 and SMP systems 6-10 load value might be acceptable.

#5: ps – Displays The Processes

ps command will report a snapshot of the current processes. To select all processes use the -A or -e option:

# ps -A

Sample Outputs:

  PID TTY          TIME CMD
    1 ?        00:00:02 init
    2 ?        00:00:02 migration/0
    3 ?        00:00:01 ksoftirqd/0
    4 ?        00:00:00 watchdog/0
    5 ?        00:00:00 migration/1
    6 ?        00:00:15 ksoftirqd/1
 4881 ?        00:53:28 java
 4885 tty1     00:00:00 mingetty
 4886 tty2     00:00:00 mingetty
 4887 tty3     00:00:00 mingetty
 4888 tty4     00:00:00 mingetty
 4891 tty5     00:00:00 mingetty
 4892 tty6     00:00:00 mingetty
 4893 ttyS1    00:00:00 agetty
12853 ?        00:00:00 cifsoplockd
12854 ?        00:00:00 cifsdnotifyd
14231 ?        00:10:34 lighttpd
14232 ?        00:00:00 php-cgi
54981 pts/0    00:00:00 vim
55465 ?        00:00:00 php-cgi
55546 ?        00:00:00 bind9-snmp-stat
55704 pts/1    00:00:00 ps

ps is just like top but provides more information.

Show Long Format Output

# ps -Al

To turn on extra full mode (it will show command line arguments passed to process):

# ps -AlF

To See Threads ( LWP and NLWP)

# ps -AlFH

To See Threads After Processes

# ps -AlLm

Print All Process On The Server

# ps ax

# ps axu

Print A Process Tree

# ps -ejH

# ps axjf

# pstree

Print Security Information

# ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label

# ps axZ

# ps -eM

See Every Process Running As User Vivek

# ps -U vivek -u vivek u

Set Output In a User-Defined Format

# ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm

# ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm

# ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan

Display Only The Process IDs of Lighttpd

# ps -C lighttpd -o pid=


# pgrep lighttpd


# pgrep -u vivek php-cgi

Display The Name of PID 55977

# ps -p 55977 -o comm=

Find Out The Top 10 Memory Consuming Process

# ps -auxf | sort -nr -k 4 | head -10

Find Out top 10 CPU Consuming Process

# ps -auxf | sort -nr -k 3 | head -10

#6: free – Memory Usage

The command free displays the total amount of free and used physical and swap memory in the system, as well as the buffers used by the kernel.

# free

Sample Output:

            total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:      12302896    9739664    2563232          0     523124    5154740
-/+ buffers/cache:    4061800    8241096
Swap:      1052248          0    1052248

#7: iostat – Average CPU Load, Disk Activity

The command iostat report Central Processing Unit (CPU) statistics and input/output statistics for devices, partitions and network filesystems (NFS).

# iostat

Sample Outputs:

Linux 2.6.18-128.1.14.el5 (     06/26/2009
avg-cpu:  %user   %nice %system %iowait  %steal   %idle
           3.50    0.09    0.51    0.03    0.00   95.86
Device:            tps   Blk_read/s   Blk_wrtn/s   Blk_read   Blk_wrtn
sda              22.04        31.88       512.03   16193351  260102868
sda1              0.00         0.00         0.00       2166        180
sda2             22.04        31.87       512.03   16189010  260102688
sda3              0.00         0.00         0.00       1615          0

#8: sar – Collect and Report System Activity

The sar command is used to collect, report, and save system activity information. To see network counter, enter:

# sar -n DEV | more

To display the network counters from the 24th:

# sar -n DEV -f /var/log/sa/sa24 | more

You can also display real time usage using sar:

# sar 4 5

Sample Outputs:

Linux 2.6.18-128.1.14.el5 (            06/26/2009
06:45:12 PM       CPU     %user     %nice   %system   %iowait    %steal     %idle
06:45:16 PM       all      2.00      0.00      0.22      0.00      0.00     97.78
06:45:20 PM       all      2.07      0.00      0.38      0.03      0.00     97.52
06:45:24 PM       all      0.94      0.00      0.28      0.00      0.00     98.78
06:45:28 PM       all      1.56      0.00      0.22      0.00      0.00     98.22
06:45:32 PM       all      3.53      0.00      0.25      0.03      0.00     96.19
Average:          all      2.02      0.00      0.27      0.01      0.00     97.70

#9: mpstat – Multiprocessor Usage

The mpstat command displays activities for each available processor, processor 0 being the first one. mpstat -P ALL to display average CPU utilization per processor:

# mpstat -P ALL

Sample Output:

Linux 2.6.18-128.1.14.el5 (              06/26/2009
06:48:11 PM  CPU   %user   %nice    %sys %iowait    %irq   %soft  %steal   %idle    intr/s
06:48:11 PM  all    3.50    0.09    0.34    0.03    0.01    0.17    0.00   95.86   1218.04
06:48:11 PM    0    3.44    0.08    0.31    0.02    0.00    0.12    0.00   96.04   1000.31
06:48:11 PM    1    3.10    0.08    0.32    0.09    0.02    0.11    0.00   96.28     34.93
06:48:11 PM    2    4.16    0.11    0.36    0.02    0.00    0.11    0.00   95.25      0.00
06:48:11 PM    3    3.77    0.11    0.38    0.03    0.01    0.24    0.00   95.46     44.80
06:48:11 PM    4    2.96    0.07    0.29    0.04    0.02    0.10    0.00   96.52     25.91
06:48:11 PM    5    3.26    0.08    0.28    0.03    0.01    0.10    0.00   96.23     14.98
06:48:11 PM    6    4.00    0.10    0.34    0.01    0.00    0.13    0.00   95.42      3.75
06:48:11 PM    7    3.30    0.11    0.39    0.03    0.01    0.46    0.00   95.69     76.89

#10: pmap – Process Memory Usage

The command pmap report memory map of a process. Use this command to find out causes of memory bottlenecks.

# pmap -d PID

To display process memory information for pid # 47394, enter:

# pmap -d 47394

Sample Outputs:

47394:   /usr/bin/php-cgi
Address           Kbytes Mode  Offset           Device    Mapping
0000000000400000    2584 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002 php-cgi
0000000000886000     140 rw--- 0000000000286000 008:00002 php-cgi
00000000008a9000      52 rw--- 00000000008a9000 000:00000   [ anon ]
0000000000aa8000      76 rw--- 00000000002a8000 008:00002 php-cgi
000000000f678000    1980 rw--- 000000000f678000 000:00000   [ anon ]
000000314a600000     112 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002
000000314a81b000       4 r---- 000000000001b000 008:00002
000000314a81c000       4 rw--- 000000000001c000 008:00002
000000314aa00000    1328 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002
000000314ab4c000    2048 ----- 000000000014c000 008:00002
00002af8d48fd000       4 rw--- 0000000000006000 008:00002
00002af8d490c000      40 r-x-- 0000000000000000 008:00002
00002af8d4916000    2044 ----- 000000000000a000 008:00002
00002af8d4b15000       4 r---- 0000000000009000 008:00002
00002af8d4b16000       4 rw--- 000000000000a000 008:00002
00002af8d4b17000  768000 rw-s- 0000000000000000 000:00009 zero (deleted)
00007fffc95fe000      84 rw--- 00007ffffffea000 000:00000   [ stack ]
ffffffffff600000    8192 ----- 0000000000000000 000:00000   [ anon ]
mapped: 933712K    writeable/private: 4304K    shared: 768000K

The last line is very important:

  • mapped: 933712K total amount of memory mapped to files
  • writeable/private: 4304K the amount of private address space
  • shared: 768000K the amount of address space this process is sharing with others

#11 and #12: netstat and ss – Network Statistics

The command netstat displays network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships. ss command is used to dump socket statistics. It allows showing information similar to netstat.

#13: iptraf – Real-time Network Statistics

The iptraf command is interactive colorful IP LAN monitor. It is an ncurses-based IP LAN monitor that generates various network statistics including TCP info, UDP counts, ICMP and OSPF information, Ethernet load info, node stats, IP checksum errors, and others. It can provide the following info in easy to read format:

  • Network traffic statistics by TCP connection
  • IP traffic statistics by network interface
  • Network traffic statistics by protocol
  • Network traffic statistics by TCP/UDP port and by packet size
  • Network traffic statistics by Layer2 address


Fig.02: General interface statistics: IP traffic statistics by network interface


Fig.03 Network traffic statistics by TCP connection

#14: tcpdump – Detailed Network Traffic Analysis

The tcpdump is simple command that dump traffic on a network. However, you need good understanding of TCP/IP protocol to utilize this tool. For.e.g to display traffic info about DNS, enter:

# tcpdump -i eth1 'udp port 53'

To display all IPv4 HTTP packets to and from port 80, i.e. print only packets that contain data, not, for example, SYN and FIN packets and ACK-only packets, enter:

# tcpdump 'tcp port 80 and (((ip[2:2] - ((ip[0]&0xf)<<2)) - ((tcp[12]&0xf0)>>2)) != 0)'

To display all FTP session to, enter:

# tcpdump -i eth1 'dst and (port 21 or 20'

To display all HTTP session to

# tcpdump -ni eth0 'dst and tcp and port http'

Use wireshark to view detailed information about files, enter:

# tcpdump -n -i eth1 -s 0 -w output.txt src or dst port 80

#15: strace – System Calls

Trace system calls and signals. This is useful for debugging webserver and other server problems. See how to use to trace the process and see What it is doing.

#16: /Proc file system – Various Kernel Statistics

/proc file system provides detailed information about various hardware devices and other Linux kernel information. See Linux kernel /proc documentations for further details. Common /proc examples:

# cat /proc/cpuinfo

# cat /proc/meminfo

# cat /proc/zoneinfo

# cat /proc/mounts

17#: Nagios – Server And Network Monitoring

Nagios is a popular open source computer system and network monitoring application software. You can easily monitor all your hosts, network equipment and services. It can send alert when things go wrong and again when they get better. FAN is “Fully Automated Nagios”. FAN goals are to provide a Nagios installation including most tools provided by the Nagios Community. FAN provides a CDRom image in the standard ISO format, making it easy to easilly install a Nagios server. Added to this, a wide bunch of tools are including to the distribution, in order to improve the user experience around Nagios.

18#: Cacti – Web-based Monitoring Tool

Cacti is a complete network graphing solution designed to harness the power of RRDTool’s data storage and graphing functionality. Cacti provides a fast poller, advanced graph templating, multiple data acquisition methods, and user management features out of the box. All of this is wrapped in an intuitive, easy to use interface that makes sense for LAN-sized installations up to complex networks with hundreds of devices. It can provide data about network, CPU, memory, logged in users, Apache, DNS servers and much more. See how to install and configure Cacti network graphing tool under CentOS / RHEL.

#19: KDE System Guard – Real-time Systems Reporting and Graphing

KSysguard is a network enabled task and system monitor application for KDE desktop. This tool can be run over ssh session. It provides lots of features such as a client/server architecture that enables monitoring of local and remote hosts. The graphical front end uses so-called sensors to retrieve the information it displays. A sensor can return simple values or more complex information like tables. For each type of information, one or more displays are provided. Displays are organized in worksheets that can be saved and loaded independently from each other. So, KSysguard is not only a simple task manager but also a very powerful tool to control large server farms.


Fig.05 KDE System Guard {Image credit: Wikipedia}

See the KSysguard handbook for detailed usage.

#20: Gnome System Monitor – Real-time Systems Reporting and Graphing

The System Monitor application enables you to display basic system information and monitor system processes, usage of system resources, and file systems. You can also use System Monitor to modify the behavior of your system. Although not as powerful as the KDE System Guard, it provides the basic information which may be useful for new users:

  • Displays various basic information about the computer’s hardware and software.
  • Linux Kernel version
  • GNOME version
  • Hardware
  • Installed memory
  • Processors and speeds
  • System Status
  • Currently available disk space
  • Processes
  • Memory and swap space
  • Network usage
  • File Systems
  • Lists all mounted filesystems along with basic information about each.


Fig.06 The Gnome System Monitor application

Bonus: Additional Tools

A few more tools:

  • nmap – scan your server for open ports.
  • lsof – list open files, network connections and much more.
  • ntop web based tool – ntop is the best tool to see network usage in a way similar to what top command does for processes i.e. it is network traffic monitoring software. You can see network status, protocol wise distribution of traffic for UDP, TCP, DNS, HTTP and other protocols.
  • Conky – Another good monitoring tool for the X Window System. It is highly configurable and is able to monitor many system variables including the status of the CPU, memory, swap space, disk storage, temperatures, processes, network interfaces, battery power, system messages, e-mail inboxes etc.
  • GKrellM – It can be used to monitor the status of CPUs, main memory, hard disks, network interfaces, local and remote mailboxes, and many other things.
  • vnstat – vnStat is a console-based network traffic monitor. It keeps a log of hourly, daily and monthly network traffic for the selected interface(s).
  • htop – htop is an enhanced version of top, the interactive process viewer, which can display the list of processes in a tree form.
  • mtr – mtr combines the functionality of the traceroute and ping programs in a single network diagnostic tool.
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